Signaling from Nervous System Helped Control Inflammatory Response in IBD, Mouse Study Shows

Signaling from Nervous System Helped Control Inflammatory Response in IBD, Mouse Study Shows
Signaling from the nervous system through the β2-adrenergic receptor can help control the type of inflammation that characterizes inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a new mouse study shows. These findings suggest that new therapies targeting the same pathway as the nervous system may help control inflammation in IBD. The study, “β2-adrenergic receptor–mediated negative regulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cell responses,” was published in the journal Science. Diseases that are characterized by inflammation, such as IBD, tend to exhibit a type of inflammation known as the type 2 inflammatory response, which happens when an individual is exposed to infectious and environmental triggers — helminth infections, allergens, venoms, and other stimuli. One of the main characteristics of the type 2 response is the activation of immune cells called the T helper 2 (TH2) cells, and the release of signaling molecules, called type 2 cytokines, which play major roles in activating the inflammatory response. Recent studies have identified another group of immune cells — called group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) — as a potent source of type 2 cytokines and, consequently, contributing to type 2 inflammatory responses. Although considerable advances have been made to define the cytokines and environmental stimuli that trigger ILC2 responses, the regulatory mechanisms that regulate their resp
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